Ancient Pyramids


(3500 B.C. - 1000 B.C.) by Michael Holland & Lance Wilson
"Fool! Don't you see now that I could have poisoned you a hundred times had I been able to live without you." - Cleopatra (

The Nile River

Egypt is one of many wonders of the world, from the large pyramids that still stand today, to the mummies lying in them. Egypt's architecture, government, religion and rituals are what stood out from other civilizations. Their idea of the afterlife started a brilliant ritual to preserve dead bodies, so those important could return in their second life. The first part of mummification, was removing some vital organs and placing them in Canopic Jars. The second step was drying out the body and wrapping it in strips of white linen. After that, the body was placed in a sarcophagus. Important Pharaohs had their own burial chambers made from sand blocks, shaped like Pyramids, (Picture Below) where the bodies were placed. Treasured items were set along with the bodies, for use in the afterlife.

Egypt's location was a huge advantage. The Nile River, was the "Giver of Life" helping agriculture, or completely ruining it and forcing people to starve. The Nile, along with the Mediterranean Sea, the Libyan Desert, the Red Sea and the Nubian Desert gave Egypt protection from attack. Upper Egypt (South) and Lower Egypt (North), once stood alone but were then united by Menes, the very 1st Pharaoh. Egypt's history is classified as 3 different time periods, the Old, Middle and New Kingdoms. During the old kingdom, also known as the pyramid age, is probably most known for its architecture. From 2700 to 2200 BC many pyramids were built, and 90 still stand! Besides all the pyramids stands a Sphinx, a statue with a lion body and human head there to protect. The Middle Age is considered the Golden Age and lasted from 2050 to 1800 BC. Mummification started for lower classes (no longer just pharoahs and upper classes), and canals were built to link the Nile and Red Sea. The New Kingdom was all about the empires. It lasted from 1570 until 1090 BC. Many great rulers like Amenhotep and Thutmose III arose to power during this time.

Egypt's civilization would have been nothing without its religion. Gods were worshipped and used to explain every important aspect to an Egyptian's life. Amon-Re was the source of life as the sun God. Osiris is the God of the Nile and the underworld and he judges the dead. According to an ancient Myth, his evil brother Seth cut up his body parts and tossed them into the Nile. Isis, Osiris's wife brought him back to life and is known as the Goddess of Resurrection. There were many other Gods, and Pharaoh's were usually linked in some way to them. It was all the leadership from Pharaohs, Gods and Goddesses that led to such a successful civilization.

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Key Terms:

Ancient Mummy

Nile River - "Giver of life" - Longest river in the world running through Egypt and ending in the Mediterranean 4,160 miles. The Nile was an extremely important river because it provided the foundation of Egypt because it supplied the Egyptians with water.
Pharaoh - Pharaoh means "Great House" and was the term used for the Ruler of Egypt that was believed to be part God.
Mummification - The process of embalming & drying corpses to preserve body their body for the afterlife. They were then placed into a sarcophagus and some even placed into special tombs called pyramids.Hieroglyphics - The ancient system of writing involving pictures to symbol words. An example was the different drawings of the sun could stand for a time. Cataracts - Rapids on the Nile that helped form a natural barrier from an invasion. Because of cataracts and other natural barriers, the Egyptians had a strong civilization protected from the attacks of other groups.

Important Leaders:

Menes (Egypt's 1st Ruler)

1. Menes (3100 BC) - He was Egypt's first pharaoh that started the first dynasty. He united both the Upper and Lower Kingdoms of Egypt.
2. Ramses II (1304 - 1237 BC) - The third Egyptian pharaoh that was very well known as "Ramses the Great". He is believed to be the strongest of Pharaohs.3. Queen Hapshetsut (1473 - 1458 BC) - She was one of the most successful pharaohs, and stood out because she was the first female ruler in history. She wore a ceremonial beard because it wasn't common for women to be rulers during that time.
4. Amenhotep IV (1353-1336 BC) - Amenhotep started a religious revolution. His idea believed that Aton was the provider of the entire world. He eventually changed his name to Akenaton.
5. Cleopatra (31 BC) - Cleopatra was the last pharaoh of Egypt. She had a relationship with Julius Caesar and after he was murdered, Mark Anthony. She committed suicide surrendering to Rome.

For More Information, Please Visit:


British Museum of Facts shows you all about Egypt. Egyptian Life, Geography, Gods & Goddesses, Mummification, Pharoahs, Pyramids, Temples, Times, Trades and Writings are all covered.

Discovering Ancient Egypt

This site will show you everything from Hieroglyphics to mummification. Games and Quizzes are also available.


This site offers a deeper view on Ancient Egypt. Anything from Science to Religion AND all of the basics are right here in one place.

Ancient Egypt Wiki

This Wikipedia will give you all you need to know in a lengthy, detailed report. It covers basics and a few more things like their pottery and science.

The Ancient Egypt Site

This site not only gives you some of Ancient Egypt, but also what its like today. This is your site for modern day Egypt and whats left of Ancient Egypt together.


Important Events:

  • 3100 B.C.The History behind Egypt begins under Menes the first Pharaoh
  • 2700 - 2200 B.C.The Old Kingdom begins and ends and is considered to be the Pyramid Age. It was the greatest period of Ancient Egyptian history.
  • 2650 B.C.The Step Pyramid is built at Sakkara, the world's oldest building that's idea was created by the architect Imhotep.
  • 2540 B.C.The Great Pyramid is contructed by King Khufu, made of 2,300,000 stone blocks. It covers 13 acres and is 481 feet high.
  • 2050 - 1652 B.C.The Middle Kingdom begins and ends. It is the golden age of Egypt when mummification for lower classes begins and a canal linking the Nile and Red Sea is built.
  • 1652 B.C.The first Invasion of Egypt by the Hyksos, crossing the Sinai Peninsula with horses and war chariots.
  • 1567 - 1085 B.C.New Kingdom starts and ends. It is considered the Empire Age because of the many emperors that took over.
  • 1473 - 1458 B.C.Queen Hapshetsut becomes the first female ruler in history.
  • 1279 - 1213 B.C.Reign of King Ramses II who was considered to be the strongest of all Pharaohs.
  • 31 B.C. Cleopatra's Reign begins. She is the last pharaoh of Egypt and was defeated by Augustus Caesar.


Sphinx at Giza