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(1780-1914) by Lance Wilson, Cole Bachmeier, and Austen Tyryfter

"History repeats itself, first as tragedy, second as farce."- Karl Marx


While todays modern world was influenced by many things in the past, none more created our modern world than the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution began in the 1780's in the country of Great Britain. One of the major causes of the Industrial Revolution was that increases in agricultural yields allowed people to earn more money for their crops even though it was sold at a lower price. The people of Britain thus had more money and were able to buy more of what are called manufactured goods. More food resulted in a higher population, which combined with Britain's abundant natural resouces allowed factories to open and quickly be supplied with labor. One of the first products that powered the Industrial Revolution was cotton. In the early 1700's, cotton was woven by hand, and as the eighteenth century wore on, cotton began to be woven by water-powered looms. But the weaving of cotton was revolutionized in 1782 when James Watt modified his steam engine so that it would be able to drive machinery. The production of ctton was also revolutionized by Eli Whitney, who invented the cotton gin in 1793, which drastically increased the speed at which seeds could be removed from cotton. The steam engine led to the mining of coal, which was required to power the steam engine. Another development of the Industrial Revolution was the railroad. With the creation of the steam engine locomotive, goods could be transported across the country much more quickly than before. In the United States the growth of railroads was exponential. In 1830, there were only 23 miles of railroads in the US. By 1900, that number had increased to over 195,000. Railroads also spread across continental Europe as more and more countries became industrialized. Another result of the Industrial Revolution was that the population of cities increased as people moved from living on farms to living in cities where the factories were located. The Industrial Revolution also created the industrial working class, who were subjected to poor conditions in factories, where they worked over 12 hours a day for six days of the week, the only exception being
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The Communist Manifesto

eventually created to limit working hours and decrease the use of children. It also led to the socialist movement. In socialism, the society owns the factories. The idea was to create equality among people and to promote cooperation in industry. People who believed this are called utopian socialists because their views have been denounced by later socialists as impractical for use in the real world. One of the most well known socialists was Karl Marx. Karl Marx and a German colleague, Friedrich Engels, published a book in 1848 called "The Communist Manifesto". During Marx's time, the oppressors, the middle class known as the bourgeoisie, owned the factories and the means of production. The oppressed working class, known as the proletariats, were predicted by Marx to rise up in revolution and take control. This would abolish the social classes of society. Several forms of socialism developed from Marx's theory, including Communism, Socialists who believed that the revolution would result in the overthrow of capitalism, and revisionists, who believed that political parties formed by the workers must push for their goals in a democratic system. Democratic systems were most popular in Western Europe. The United Kingdom's two-party parliament passed laws that provide compensation for sick or injured workers, as well as pensions for people older than 70. The Third French Republic was created after the fall of the French Empire, and in 1870 ltaly unified into one nation for the first time since the Justininian was driven out of the land by the Ostrogoths in the 500's. However, in eastern Europe, the monarchies still prevailed. Germany, for example, had a two-house parliament but was ruled by an emperor. The imperial rule in Germany was created in 1871 by Otto von Bismarck, who was the chancellor at the time. Emperor William II, whose reign lasted from 1888 to 1918, turned Germany into the strongest power in Europe. Austria-Hungary was also ruled by an emperor who disregarded the legislative body, and Russia was ruled by Czar Nicholas ll. The United States also acquired several overseas territories in the Industrial Revolution, including Alaska, Hawaii, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Several nations became independent in the Balkan peninsula. However, some regions were annexed by Austria-Hungary. Serbia was angered by this, but without the help of Russia, which had been weakened by war with Japan, they could do nothing. The tension here would set the stage for the first World War.
Sunday. Conditions were especially poor in cotton and coal mines. In textile factories the workforce was dominated by women and sometimes children. Laws were

While the Industrial Revolution was mainly a period of manufacturing, it was also a period of increased learning. A movement called Romanticism formed as a response to the Enlightenment. In Romanticism, only the person experiencing an emotion can comprehend it. Protagonists in romantic novels were often were rejected by society but still had high self-esteem due to inner feelings. They also believed poetry was a direct connection to the soul. Romanticism also extended into music and art. Eugene Delacroix was one of the most well-known painters of the Romantic period. His paintings emphasized color and exotic scenery. Ludwig van Beethoven was originally a classical composer, but by the end of his life his works portrayed all of the elements of Romanticism and appealed to the emotions to transform the world of music. Not all people in the Industrial Revolution were romantics, however. Others were realists. Unlike in Romanticism, the belief of Realism was that the world should be looked at realistically. Characters in Realist works were based on ordinary life rather than characters in unusual situations. While Romantics prefered poems to express their emotions, Realists used more exact descriptions in novels. One of the most famous Realist novelists was Charles Dickens, who wrote works such as Oliver Twist and
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A Tale Of Two Cities
The Tale of Two Cities. Realism also became dominant in art in the second half of the nineteenth century. These would later evolve into modernist concepts such as naturalism in literature and impressionist artworks. Realist paintins continued to decline after the first Kodak camera was created by George Eastman in 1888. Modernism was also present in the functionalist movement in architecture. Functionalists believed that buildings should be built for the purpose they serve, and that no external ornamentation was required. The houses designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, which reflected this belief, became the blueprints for the modern American home. The Industrial Revolution also sparked an increase in interest in science. Scientists during this time, such as Louis Pasteur, who created the theory that disease are cause by germs, and Dmitri Mendeleyev, who organized the known elements based on atomic weight, caused the scientific developments of the time to have a greater beneficial impact on the world. Other scientists discovered methods of how the natural world was formed. The most prominent of these was Charles Darwin. Charles Darwin's theory was that life had evolved from simpler and more primitive forms of life in a process called organic evolution, and continued to evolve through natural selection, which was based on the idea of survival of the fittest. Darwin published this theory in his book "On the Origin of Species" in 1859. Science was later improved in the early twentieth century by scientists such as Marie Curie, who discovered radiation, and Albert Einstein, who created the Theory of Relativity. Psychology was revolutionized by Sigmund Freud. Freud's theory was that traumatic experiences of the past were repressed, which means they were hidden from a person's conscious thought. However, Freud believed they could still influence behavior. To fix these problems, Freud created the process of psychoanalysis, which explores the memories of the patient to find the repressed thoughts. Once found, the patient can be made aware of them, which will in turn heal the patient. Another development in society at the beginning of the twentieth century was anti-Semitism, which is discrimination against Jews. This was especially prominent in Germany, where the Jews were believed by many to be enemies of the Aryan race. This also created tension that would lead to later wars.

The Industrial Revolution is often divided into two halves. The first half was marked by the development of the textile industries, as well as coal and iron. The second half was more focused on steel, oil, and electricity. Electricity was used to created heat and light, and was also used to power the machines that ran the Industrial Revolution. In the 1870's electric generators were developed, and not long after hydroelectric and coal power plants were created across America and Europe. The use of electricity allowed inventions like the lightbulb, created by Thomas Edison, to be brought into widespread use. Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876. Electricity also allowed the development of new transportation to occur. In the 1880's subways and streetcars were installed in cities. By the time the radio was invented by Guglielmo Marconi in 1901, the world was a much different place than just thirty years earlier. The coal powered steam engine, which had fueled the factories of the Industrial Revolution, gave way in transportation to the internal combustion engine, which was powered by oil. The new internal combustion engine powered both the automobile and the airplane, which today are the most commonly used forms of transportation. The first airplane was flown on December 17, 1903, by Wilbur and Orville Wright, who flew their first plane at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. In 1919 the first airline service was created. The first four wheeled automoblie was created by Gottlieb Daimler in 1885.

Important Industrial Revolution People:



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Alexander Graham Bell
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Otto van Bismarck

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Karl Marx
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Guglielmo Marconi

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Thomas Edison

Industrial Revolution Terms:



Socialism- A system in which society controls and owns some means of production, such as utilities and factories. This is where the government owns production to create equality of all the people.
Industrial Capitalism- An economic system based of industrial production. This system created a new middle-class group; the industrial middle class. This class was made of people who built the factories, who figured out where the markets were, and how bought the machines.
Cottage Industry- A production method in which tasks such as the production of cotton goods was completed by an individual in their rural homes. This method was very efficient making goods expensive to buy.
Puddling- The process of removing impurities from iron. Henry Cort created this process to produce a better quality of iron in the 1780s. Through this process, the production of iron jumped from 17,000 tons to 70,000 tons.
Romanticism- An intellectual movement that emerged as a reaction to the ideas of the Enlightenment. This movement stressed emotions, feelings, and imagination as sources of knowing. Followers of this movement, or romantics, believed that sentiment and emotion were understandable to the person experiencing them.
Organic Evolution- The basic idea that each animal and plant evolved over a long period of time from earlier and simpler forms of life. This idea was expressed through Charles Darwin’s book, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection.
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Organic Evolution

Natural Selection- The process in which Darwin believed that some organisms are more adaptable to the environment than others. This explained that those who were elected reproduced and thrived. The phrase “Survival of the fittest” was coined.
Revisionists- Some members of the Marxists party were called this. Revisionists rejected the revolutionary approached and argued that the workers must continue to organize and work with other parties to gain reforms.
Psychoanalysis- A method by which a therapist and a patient could probe deeply into the patient’s memory to allow the patient to be aware of the repressed thoughts to allow said patient to be healed.
Bourgeoisie- This was known as the middle class. Marx believed that the bourgeoisie were the oppressors and that someday the proletariat, or working class would revolute and overthrow this middle class.

Key Dates:


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Indus. Rev. Telephone
1712:
Thomas Newcome invents the steam engine.
1782: James Watt modifies the steam engine, enabling it to drive machinery.
1793: Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin.
1859: Charles Darwin publishes "On the Origin of Species", which describes the evolution of life by natural selection.
1870: Italy emerges as a unified country for the first time since the Byzantine Empire was driven out 1300 years earlier.
1871: Otto von Bismarck creates the constitution that gives rise to imperial Germany.
1876: Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone.
1885: Gottlieb Daimler creates the first four wheeled automobile.
1901: Guglielmo Marconi uses his radio to send the first radio waves across the Atlantic Ocean.
December 17, 1903: The Wright brothers fly the first airplane in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

Important People:


  1. Albert Einstein: Also known as “Father of Nuclear Age”, he developed the Theory of Relativity or E=mc^2 in 1905. This theory stated that space and time are not absolute but relative to the observer.
  2. Thomas Edison: Was called the “Wizard of Menlo Park”, he created the Light bulb in 1879, and is still today the person with the most patents in the United States.
  3. Charles Darwin: He wrote the Origin of Species in 1859this is the theory of evolution. He also had two other theories like organic evolution and natural selection.
  4. Jethro Tull: Created the seed drill and cultivator. He was part of a group called the Gentlemen Farmers; this group was of people who created new farm machines.
  5. Cyrus Mc Cormick: He created the mechanical reaper which was used to harvest grain in 1834; he was also one of the Gentlemen Farmers.
  6. Louis Pasteur: He discovered bacteria or germs caused by infectious diseases, he then developed pasteurization or sterilizing liquids by heating rabies vaccinations.
  7. John McAdam: He created the McAdams Roads in 1816, these roads where made of crushed stones, he would often put turnpikes or tollgates to travel on.
  8. George Stephenson: He made the first rocket in 1829 he also created the first locomotive that was powered by steam and ran on iron rails from Liverpool to Manchester. This locomotive traveled 16 miles per hour.
  9. Guglilmo Marconi: He designed the wireless telegraph Radio in 1901. People used this wireless telegraph radio to send radio waves across the Atlantic.
  10. Alexander Graham Bell: He designed the telephone in 1876; there was a Ceremonial call between New York and Chicago using this telephone in 1892.

Videos



These videos describe the Industrial Revolution and how they influenced modern history.



Map


This map shows Europe as it was in 1900.
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Industrial Revolution Links:



Karl Marx This site explains Karl Marx's achievements throughout his life. This shows the many roles and jobs he was known for as well as his most famous piece of work, "The Communist Manifesto". It explains that he was known as the father of communism.
Psychoanalysis This site explains the theory behind psychoanalysis. It explains who were to main providers for the theory, as well as how it is use. It explains that it is used by finding repressed thoughts to allow the patient to be healed.
Albert Einstein This site explains all of Albert's inventions as well as his theory of relativity. It explains that he came up with the formula: E=mc^2. Finally, it gives the reader a great insight to his background; such as his childhood.
Marie Curie This site explains the work Marie Curie did for the science field. It explains that she found out that an element called radium gave off a term she coined known as radation, or energy. She proved that atoms were like small, active worlds.
Abraham Lincoln This site explains the work that Lincoln did for the sake of abolitionism, or a movement to end slavery. It explains his life in great detail, from the great President Lincoln to his sad and tragic death.
Thomas Edison This site has all the information you could possibly want on Thomas Edison. It includes a biography, quotes, and an actually gallery of all the different types of inventions that he invented.
Agriculture This site provides information on all of the different invention and people that helped the agriculture of the U.S. during the industrial revolution. This site also provides plenty of information on all of the people who helped the agriculture during this time period.
Charles Dickens This site explains Charles Dickens life from and early age all the way to his death. It also explains all of his contribution to society during this time period and even today. It is very detailed and has lots of links along with it to help explain certain things.
Cottage Industry This site provides all the information you would need to learn about the cottage industry during the industrial revolution. It goes in depth into all of the different inventions that helped the cottage industry.
Overview This site provides a general overview of the industrial revolution. It does not go into depth on most subjects but it tells you what influenced the Indus. Rev. and it give a general overview of the technology developed during this time period.